Injury of one or more of the four tendons which stabilise the shoulder joint (rotator cuff muscles) causes pain, instability and reduces the range of motion of the joint. This usually represents tendinosis (tendinopathy) of the tendon(s), not uncommonly associated with tears that can be large or small. Tendinosis can be defined as tendon degeneration. The differentiation between tendinosis and tears, which often co-exist, can be difficult. The supraspinatus tendon is the most commonly affected. Usually presents as pain.
This is where the tendinosis/ tears as described above heal with the laying down of calcium (hydroxyapatite) in the tendon. Presents as pain.
Very common condition. A bursa is a normal space/sac that lies between structures such as muscle and tendon and acts as a “lubricant” allowing free movement. Shoulder Bursitis is when these sacs become inflamed, and increasingly painful, making movement through the area difficult.
Frozen shoulder or ‘adhesive capsulitis’ is a disorder where the capsule that surrounds the shoulder joint becomes stiff and inflamed. Typically produces restriction in the range of movement of the shoulder together with pain. Occasionally the restriction and pain can be severe requiring frozen shoulder treatment. Exact cause unknown. Can last for months to years if left untreated.
Better diagnosed with MRI, but sometimes can be seen on ultrasound.
Nerve entrapment at the back of the shoulder. Pain typically occurs with shoulder external rotation, extension and abduction. Presents with pain and parasthesia down the arm.
Tendinosis and inflammation of the tendon of the biceps muscle at the front of the shoulder joint.