Usually degeneration of the Achilles tendon, but occasionally acute tears can lead to acute or long standing grumbling pain of the tendon. Occasional associated dysfunction. Presents as heel / lower leg pain when walking or running. Sometimes associated focal swelling. Painful when pressure applied.Associated issues include: neovascularity, paratenonitis, scar adhesion to Kagers fat space, retroachilles and retrocalcaneal bursitis. Associated or isolated injury to the plantaris tendon.
The ligaments anchoring the foot to the leg at the ankle are prone to injury after a fall or abnormal twisting movement of the ankle, often during sports or running over uneven surfaces. The ligaments on the outer aspect of the ankle (lateral ligaments) are more likely to be injured than those on the inner aspect (medial ligaments). The sprain can result in tenderness, swelling, bruising, numbness, difficulty bearing weight and instability.
Tendons can be injured or degenerate as one ages.These tendons run around the sides and over the front on the ankle. This can present as pain or weakness. Can be associated inflammation (tenosynovitis).
Painful condition of the undersurface of the heel. The plantar fascia is a cord like structure that extends along the sole of the foot towards the toes. This results from wear and tear with degeneration and often associated tearing of this structure. Pain usually felt on the underside of the heel and is worst in the early mornings.
Morton’s neuroma or intermetatarsal fibrosis. This relates to a condition where scar tissue surrounds a nerve that runs between the toes. Pain can be severe and is typically like an electric shock. Often associated inflammation – intermetatarsal bursitis.
Many causes including Morton’s neuroma and intermetatarsal bursitis, sesamoiditis (pain at the base of the big toe), plantar plate tears, flexor and extensor tendon tenosynovitis, plantar fibromatosis, joint effusions and synovitis and ganglia.