Participating in physical activity has amazing health benefits, short and long term, and can give you the longevity of a healthy life you may be looking for, or provide you strength and fitness required to excel or improve at the sport you love and compete in. Ironically, the same physical activity may also cause you physical grief through prolonged pain and/or injury, through overuse or trauma, thus putting a halt or slowing down the steps to improving in the sport or physical activity you’re undertaking.

At Independent Sports Imaging, we treat all major sports injuries and musculoskeletal conditions, caused by either acute or chronic trauma to the muscle, joint or bone, or through overuse of that body part, or even a hereditary issue. Our treatments cover conditions and injuries relating, but not limited to, Shoulder, Elbow, Hip/Groin, Wrist, Knee, and Ankle/Foot.

Please click on the relevant body part to see common injuries /conditions that occur at these sites. Please note this is not a comprehensive list. Other injuries/abnormalities at these sites can occur.

In addition, other body parts which may require therapy have not been included, including but not limited to: ​Trigger point therapy, Nerve root and epidural injections, Facet joint and Sacroiliac joint discomfort, Pubic symphysis, trigger fingers and Intercostal nerve blocks. 


Anatomy of the Shoulder

The shoulder joint, is one of the most complex joints of the human musculoskeletal system, made up of an array of muscles, tendons, and bones, and is ultimately made up of 3 bones and 4 joints.

The 3 bones making up the shoulder is the humerus (upper arm bone), the shoulder blade (scapula), and finally, the collarbone (clavicle).

The shoulder joint, also known as the Glenohumeral Joint, comprises of the Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint, the Sternoclavicular (SC) Joint, and the Scapulothoracic Joint.

The main bones of the shoulder joint comprise of the humerus, clavicle, and scapula, where the muscles that make up the rotator cuff provide support and stability for the joint, and allowing all muscles, tendons, and bones to work in harmony to produce movement.

Mobility of the shoulder joint is crucial for everyday life and not just for physical activity and sport, and it’s through repetitive use, incorrect posture, untreated injuries, or intensive training routines which may lead to instability or impingement in the area, and left untreated can lead to long-term issues such as a ‘frozen shoulder’.

Read More


Anatomy of the Elbow

    The humerus (upper arm bone), and the radius & ulna (forearm bones) are the 3 main bones forming the elbow joint, which is also known as a synovial joint because of the articular cartilage at the ends of each bone within the synovial cavity.

    The Synovial Cavity therefore consists of articular cartilage, which is an elastic tissue which acts as a smooth, frictionless covering over the ends of the 3 bones where they meet, allowing the bones to glide smoothly against each other when any range of movement in the elbow occurs. Within the synovial cavity, there’s a synovial fluid keeping the joint lubricated through all of the elbow movement experienced, and finally, a series of elastic connective tissue stabilising the joint and protecting it from external stresses and forces experienced from day-to-day activities and strenuous activities.

    The mobility of the elbow joint is as crucial as any other joint of the human musculoskeletal system for movement and completing everyday tasks. Whether it’s a big movement (eg. running, lifting heavy objects etc.) or smaller movements (eg. opening a door or a potato chip packet), external stresses and forces placed on this area of the body can cause injuries, and left untreated can have long-term effects on the body, and potentially lead to muscle imbalances and injuries in other areas of the body.

    Read More

Hip/Groin region

Anatomy of the Hip & Groin

    A complex musculoskeletal area made up of the femur, pelvis, along with intricate ligaments which ultimately supports the body’s weight through a large range of daily body movements, allowing the leg to move forward, backward, laterally, and in circular motions. This makes up the ball-and-socket joint also known as the hip joint.

    The muscles making up the hip and groin area are complex in design as they allow for the body to maintain upright posture when standing up or running, and as mentioned, allows for the abduction and adduction of the leg

    The greater trochanter of the thigh bone (femur) has several bursae which is located on the outer area of the hip, which acts as cushioning between bones and tendons not just in this area of the body, but throughout the body. Due to the loading in this area during strenuous activity, this region of the body shows good durability, however, injuries caused to bone, muscle, or ligaments can make for a long rehabilitation process.

    Injury to this body part is never ideal, however, with early musculoskeletal imaging and the correct diagnosis, you avoid any long-term issues leading to a deterioration of enjoyment of life.

    Read More


Anatomy of the Wrist

    Arguably one of the most complex joints in the human body, the wrist comprises of many bones which all work in unison to form an extension of the arm, and primarily to produce movement of the hand.

    The wrist is divided into the Carpal bones – Proximal, Distal, and Metacarpal bones, and numerous tendons, ligaments, blood vessels and nerves which functions to produce fine movements, and even finer movements, which include moving the hand in multiple directions and angles, transferring weight from arm to hand, and giving the hand flexibility and strength.

    These bones, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels function in a complex manner, and when extreme trauma occurs to this area, it can take a lengthy period of time to heal and strengthen itself (through rehabilitation and day-to-day activities).

    Injuring a body part is always a cause for concern, and when it comes to the mobility of the wrist, it is crucial that injuries and other wrist issues are treated accordingly, as the repetitive use of the wrist and hand are so significant in our daily lives, that you want to avoid any long-term issues as untreated injuries can lead to the most common condition – arthritis.

    Read More


Anatomy of the Knee

    A complex structure and potentially one of the most stressed joints in the body, is the knee joint, which is responsible for large weight-bearing movements, and is made up of bones, ligaments, meniscus, and tendons.

    This joint is known as a hinge joint and comprises of the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), fibula, and patella (knee bone), which are all stabilised by tendons, and 4 different ligaments (Anterior Cruciate, Posterior Cruciate, Medial Collateral, and Lateral Collateral Ligaments). The “shock absorbers” between the Femur and Tibia is the meniscus, which allows for these bones to glide against each other, avoiding any direct rubbing. 

    The make-up of the knee ultimately propels the human body in a forward motion and provides stability by producing small to great ranges of motion and is able to generate large amounts of force and movement involving the muscles surrounding the knee – quadriceps (thigh muscle), hamstrings (back of the leg), calves (back of the lower leg), and gluteal muscles (butt muscles).

    Due to the movement and force created in the lower part of the body, sporting injuries to the knee are some of the most common injuries seen in the medical profession. Rotational forces through the knee places a great amount of stress in the area, causing ligaments and tendons to rupture, which usually requires it to be surgically repaired.

    Maintaining your leg muscles to be healthy, strong and supple is essential for injury prevention and will help keep you active and stable for longer during your lifetime.

    Read More


Anatomy of the Ankle

    Yet another complex area of the musculoskeletal system, the ankle joint is made up 2 joints, the True Ankle and Subtalar joints, each comprising of different bones and producing different movements of the lower leg, and supporting a variety of daily stresses placed on this area.

    Primarily, the ankle is a hinge joint, as it produces up and down movements of the foot. Structurally, the True Ankle joint is made up of 3 bones – the Tibia and Fibula of the leg, and the Talus bone of the foot. Ligaments and articular cartilage make up the remaining structure of the ankle area. 

    The dorsiflexion and plantarflexion (up and down movement) are the main movements produced by the ankle, while other joints produce inversion and eversion of the foot.

    Anatomy of the Foot

    The structure of the foot is made up of bones, joints, muscles, and soft tissue, and is divided into 3 sections – the forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot. The complex make up of this area allows the body to perform a variety of movements needed for balance and motion. 

    The forefoot is made up of the shorter bones – the Phalanges (toes), and the longer Metatarsals, while the collection of bones in the midfoot, form the arch of the foot, and the hindfoot is made up by the heel and ankle. The bones of the foot ultimately provide mechanical support for the soft tissue in this area, assisting with the loading of forces during movement

    Maintaining your lower leg muscles to be supple, and strong forms an essential part of injury prevention in the ankle and foot region, and will help keep you balanced and active across your lifespan.

    Read More


Dr Berman is a dual specialist – Musculoskeletal Radiologist and Vein Specialist (Phlebologist)
Please click on Specialist Vein Care to see dedicated website.